paul griffiths

Paul GRIFFITHS

Oxford

Professor in Finance

Presentation

Paul Griffiths is a Professor of Finance. He joined EM Normandie in 2017. He was awarded a DBA Business Administration from Henley Management College/Brunel University in 2005. His thesis is on aligning information technology with business strategy in banks. His research interests are fintech, governance, artificial intelligence and blockchain in the banking sector. 

Professional experience

Since 2017 : professor in finance, EM Normandie

Département
Law, finance & control
Matières enseignées
Finance Quantitative methods
Diplômes
2005 : DBA in Business Administration, Henley Management College, Brunel University, Henley-On-Thames, UK
Read the articles on the blog

Publications

  • Griffiths, P 2005, 'The Application of Market Power Theory as a Value  Driver for Information Technology Investment Decisions: A Study of Six Chile an Banks', DBA en administration des affaires, Henley Management College/Brunel University, Henley-On-Thames, Angleterre.

    2005

    Thèse de doctorat/HDR

  • Griffiths, P 2005, The Application of Market Power Theory as a Value  Driver for Information Technology Investment Decisions: A Study of Six Chile an Banks', DBA in Business Administration, Henley Management College/Brunel University, Henley-On-Thames, UK.

    2005

    Thèse de doctorat/HDR

  • Griffiths, P 2015, "A Fresh Perspective on the Problem of Induction", The 2015 Review, The Oxford Philosophical Society in Association with Oxford University Department of Continuing Education, Autumn/Winter 2015, pp.10-13 
     

    2015

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P 2015, "A Fresh Perspective on the Problem of Induction", The 2015 Review, The Oxford Philosophical Society in Association with Oxford University Department of Continuing Education, Autumn/Winter 2015, pp.10-13 
     

    2015

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T 2014, "Entel: A Case Study on Knowledge Networks and the Impact of web 2.0", Electronic Journal on E-Learning, vol. 12, pp.384-94.

    2014

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T 2014, "Entel: A Case Study on Knowledge Networks and the Impact of web 2.0", Electronic Journal on E-Learning, vol. 12, pp.384-94.

    2014

    Academic articles

  • Remenyi, D & Griffiths, P (2009) "The Socratic Dialogue in the Work place: Theory and Practice", Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, vol.7, Issue 1, pp.155-164.

    2009

    Academic articles

  • Remenyi, D & Griffiths, P (2009) "The Socratic Dialogue in the Work place: Theory and Practice", Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, vol.7, Issue 1, pp.155-164.

    2009

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2008) "Aligning Knowledge Management with Competitive Strategy: A Framework", Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Special Edition, Edited by Prof Rembrandt Klopper, vol. 6, Issue 2, pp.125-13.

    2008

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2008) "Aligning Knowledge Management with Competitive Strategy: A Framework", Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Special Edition, Edited by Prof Rembrandt Klopper, vol. 6, Issue 2, pp.125-13.

    2008

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2003) "Information Technology in Financial Services: A Model for Value Creation", Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 107-116. 

    2003

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2003) "Information Technology in Financial Services: A Model for Value Creation", Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 107-116. 

    2003

    Academic articles

  • Griffiths, P 2020, ‘Southern Cone Financial Conundrum: How will banks in Chile and Argentina come out of the COVID-19, pandemic?, The Statement, June

    2020

    Other academic contributions

  • Griffiths, P 2020, ‘Southern Cone Financial Conundrum: How will banks in Chile and Argentina come out of the COVID-19, pandemic?, The Statement, June

    2020

    Other academic contributions

  • Griffiths, P 2019, ‘MNE governance: is the location of a regional headquarters a management perk?’, Conference on CSR across the Atlantic : Reviews, Issues & Perspectives, UMASS, Boston, USA, May 22-23.

    2019

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P 2019, ‘MNE governance: is the location of a regional headquarters a management perk?’, Conference on CSR across the Atlantic : Reviews, Issues & Perspectives, UMASS, Boston, USA, May 22-23.

    2019

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P 2019, ‘The hidden cost of poor governance: The case of selecting the location for a Regional Headquarter’, 15th European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance (ECMLG 2019), Porto, Portugal, November 14-15. 

    2019

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P 2019, ‘The hidden cost of poor governance: The case of selecting the location for a Regional Headquarter’, 15th European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance (ECMLG 2019), Porto, Portugal, November 14-15. 

    2019

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T (2014) "Communities of practice: The impact of Web 2.0 technologies", 9th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL 2014), Universidad Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile, June 26-27.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T (2014) "Communities of practice: The impact of Web 2.0 technologies", 9th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL 2014), Universidad Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile, June 26-27.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T & Griffiths, P(2014) "E-learning has low adoption in Chile - Is this related to learning styles?" 9th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL 2014), Universidad Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile, June 26-27.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T & Griffiths, P (2014) "Analysing the Relationship Between Components of Knowledge Orientation Strategy in Chile an Enterprises", 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organisations, KMO 2014, Santiago, Chile, September 2-5.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T & Griffiths, P(2014) "E-learning has low adoption in Chile - Is this related to learning styles?" 9th International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL 2014), Universidad Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile, June 26-27.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T & Griffiths, P (2014) "Analysing the Relationship Between Components of Knowledge Orientation Strategy in Chile an Enterprises", 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organisations, KMO 2014, Santiago, Chile, September 2-5.

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T, Griffiths, P & Zambrano, M (2014) "Capital Intelectual: Modelo centrado en el individuo", CLADEA 2014 Assembly COnference, Barcelona, Spain, September 3-5.  
     

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T, Griffiths, P & Zambrano, M (2014) "Capital Intelectual: Modelo centrado en el individuo", CLADEA 2014 Assembly COnference, Barcelona, Spain, September 3-5.  
     

    2014

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T, Griffiths, P & Freraut, A (2013) "An individual - centred model of Intellectual Capital",10th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (ICICKM 2013), Washington D.C., USA, October 24-25. 

    2013

    Academic communications

  • Arenas, T, Griffiths, P & Freraut, A (2013) "An individual - centred model of Intellectual Capital",10th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (ICICKM 2013), Washington D.C., USA, October 24-25. 

    2013

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T (2013) "Knowledge Orientation in Information Intensive Organisations: Is there a change in paradigm?", 10th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (ICICKM 2013), Washington D.C., USA, October 24-25. 

    2013

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Arenas, T (2013) "Knowledge Orientation in Information Intensive Organisations: Is there a change in paradigm?", 10th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (ICICKM 2013), Washington D.C., USA, October 24-25. 

    2013

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2012) "From Homo Habilis to Information Age Hominids: Finding Links Between The Growth of Intellectual Capital and the Evolution of the Architec ture of the Mind", 9th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning, Bogota, Colombia, October 18-19.

    2012

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2012) "From Homo Habilis to Information Age Hominids: Finding Links Between The Growth of Intellectual Capital and the Evolution of the Architec ture of the Mind", 9th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning, Bogota, Colombia, October 18-19.

    2012

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2012) "From Homo Habilis to Information Age Hominids: Population as a proxy for universal intellectual capital", British Academy of Management Conference (BAM 2012), Cardiff University, UK, September 11-13.

    2012

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2012) "From Homo Habilis to Information Age Hominids: Population as a proxy for universal intellectual capital", British Academy of Management Conference (BAM 2012), Cardiff University, UK, September 11-13.

    2012

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2010) "A Natural History of Inte llectual Capital", European Conference on Intellectual Capital, Lisbon, Portugal, March 29-30. 

    2010

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2010) "A Natural History of Inte llectual Capital", European Conference on Intellectual Capital, Lisbon, Portugal, March 29-30. 

    2010

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2008) "Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Window - dressing, smoke-screening, or the route to legitimacy?", British Academy of Management (BAM) 2008 Conference, Harrogate, UK, September 9-11.

    2008

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2008) "Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Window - dressing, smoke-screening, or the route to legitimacy?", British Academy of Management (BAM) 2008 Conference, Harrogate, UK, September 9-11.

    2008

    Academic communications

  • Remenyi, D & Griffiths, P (2008) "Making Socratic Dialogue Work in a Business Environment: A Case of Knowledge Management", European Conference on Knowledge Management, Southampton, UK, September 4-5. 

    2008

    Academic communications

  • Remenyi, D & Griffiths, P (2008) "Making Socratic Dialogue Work in a Business Environment: A Case of Knowledge Management", European Conference on Knowledge Management, Southampton, UK, September 4-5. 

    2008

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2007) "Using Knowledge for Competitive Advantage in Professional Services: A Case Study", 4th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, Stellenbosch, South Africa, October 15-16.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "The Application Of Market Power Theory As A Value Driver For Information Technology Investment Decisions in Banking", Conference on Strategic Management in Latin America, Santiago, Chile, January 4-5.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "From CIO to CKO: A Quantum Leap in Leadership Skills", 14th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ECITE07), Montpellier, France, September 17-18.  

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "The Application Of Market Power Theory As A Value Driver For Information Technology Investment Decisions in Banking", Conference on Strategic Management in Latin America, Santiago, Chile, January 4-5.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "From CIO to CKO: A Quantum Leap in Leadership Skills", 14th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ECITE07), Montpellier, France, September 17-18.  

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Perera, L (2007) "The Challenge in Corporate Social Responsibility: Getting Things Done", 3rd European Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance, Winchester, UK, April 19-20.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Perera, L (2007) "The Challenge in Corporate Social Responsibility: Getting Things Done", 3rd European Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance, Winchester, UK, April 19-20.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "The Urbaser - Kiasa Case on Corporate Social Resonsibility (CSR): From CSR Talk to CSR Action", British Academy of Management Conference 2007 (BAM2007), Warwick, UK, September 11-13.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2007) "Using Knowledge for Competitive Advantage in Professional Services: A Case Study", 4th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, Stellenbosch, South Africa, October 15-16.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2007) "The Urbaser - Kiasa Case on Corporate Social Resonsibility (CSR): From CSR Talk to CSR Action", British Academy of Management Conference 2007 (BAM2007), Warwick, UK, September 11-13.

    2007

    Academic communications

  • Bannister, F, Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2006) "Theory Building Through Case Study Analysis", European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, Dublin, Ireland, July 17-18.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Bannister, F, Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2006) "Theory Building Through Case Study Analysis", European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, Dublin, Ireland, July 17-18.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Bannister, F, Berghout, E, Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2006) "Tracing the Eclectic (or maybe even chaotic) Nature of ICT Evaluation", 13th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE06), Genoa, Italy, September 28-29.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Bannister, F, Berghout, E, Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2006) "Tracing the Eclectic (or maybe even chaotic) Nature of ICT Evaluation", 13th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE06), Genoa, Italy, September 28-29.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2006) "The role of information & communications technology as a facilitator for social responsibility implementation", British Academy of Management Conference 2006 (BAM2006), Belfast, UK, September 12-14.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2006) "The role of information & communications technology as a facilitator for social responsibility implementation", British Academy of Management Conference 2006 (BAM2006), Belfast, UK, September 12-14.

    2006

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P, Remenyi, D & Widow, M (2005) "E- Banking at Banco Security: Balancing Technology and Human based Contacts", Congresso Annual de Tecnologia de Informacao CATI 2005, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 29-July 1.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2005) "Theory-building in ICT evaluation through comparative an alysis", 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE05), Turku, Finland.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2005) "Theory-building in ICT evaluation through comparative an alysis", 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE05), Turku, Finland.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2005) "A Framewo rk to Analyze the Underlying Forces that Shape Strategies in a Banking System: The Chilean Case", British Academy of Management Conference 2005 (BAM2005), Oxford, UK, September 13-15.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2005) "A Framewo rk to Analyze the Underlying Forces that Shape Strategies in a Banking System: The Chilean Case", British Academy of Management Conference 2005 (BAM2005), Oxford, UK, September 13-15.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P, Remenyi, D & Widow, M (2005) "E- Banking at Banco Security: Balancing Technology and Human based Contacts", Congresso Annual de Tecnologia de Informacao CATI 2005, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 29-July 1.

    2005

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Stern, B (2004) "Orica Latin America – Converting a major IT - based transformation into shareholder value", 11th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 11-12.

    2004

    Academic communications

  • Remenyi, D, Griffiths, P & Diniz, E.H (2004) "The manager in the field and information and communications technology success", 11th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 11-12.

    2004

    Academic communications

  • Remenyi, D, Griffiths, P & Diniz, E.H (2004) "The manager in the field and information and communications technology success", 11th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 11-12.

    2004

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Stern, B (2004) "Orica Latin America – Converting a major IT - based transformation into shareholder value", 11th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 11-12.

    2004

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2003) "The key to converting IT Investments int o Shareholder Value in Financial Services Organisations: Invest for Market Power", 10th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE03), Madrid, Spain. 

    2003

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D (2003) "The key to converting IT Investments int o Shareholder Value in Financial Services Organisations: Invest for Market Power", 10th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE03), Madrid, Spain. 

    2003

    Academic communications

  • Griffiths, P (2011) "Strategy - Technology Alignment: Deriving Business Value from ICT Projects", Academic Publishing International (API): Reading, UK 

    2011

    Research books and book chapters

  • Griffiths, P (2011) "Strategy - Technology Alignment: Deriving Business Value from ICT Projects", Academic Publishing International (API): Reading, UK 

    2011

    Research books and book chapters

  •  Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D 2008, "The Burning Question in ICT: What and How Should we Outsource?", in Albertin, A. L. & Sanchez, O. P. "Impactos, Dilemas, Discussões e Casos Reais" . São Paulo: Editora FGV, 2008

    2008

    Research books and book chapters

  •  Griffiths, P & Remenyi, D 2008, "The Burning Question in ICT: What and How Should we Outsource?", in Albertin, A. L. & Sanchez, O. P. "Impactos, Dilemas, Discussões e Casos Reais" . São Paulo: Editora FGV, 2008

    2008

    Research books and book chapters

  • Griffiths, P, Remenyi, D & Bannister, F 2006, "The End of the ICT Disaster – Maybe, but haven´t we heard this before?",  in "Aspectos e Contribuicoes do Uso de Tecnologia de Informacao", Editora Atlas: Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

    2006

    Research books and book chapters

  • Griffiths, P, Remenyi, D & Bannister, F 2006, "The End of the ICT Disaster – Maybe, but haven´t we heard this before?",  in "Aspectos e Contribuicoes do Uso de Tecnologia de Informacao", Editora Atlas: Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

    2006

    Research books and book chapters

  • Griffiths, P 2006, "Using Technology to Facilitate Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation",  in Aspectos e Contribuicoes do Uso de Tecnologia de Informacao, Editora Atlas: Sao Paulo, Brazil 
     

    2006

    Research books and book chapters

  • Griffiths, P 2006, "Using Technology to Facilitate Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation",  in Aspectos e Contribuicoes do Uso de Tecnologia de Informacao, Editora Atlas: Sao Paulo, Brazil 
     

    2006

    Research books and book chapters

  • Correa, D & Griffiths, P 2012, "A Forward Looking Self - Service Product Configurator in a Big Box Retailer", Birchman News Quarter One, pp.10-2

    2012

    Case studies

  • Griffiths, P & Callund, J 2012, "Governance: Is the locations of a Regional Headquarters a management perk?",Birchman News.   

    2012

    Case studies

  • Griffiths, P & Callund, J 2012, "Governance: Is the locations of a Regional Headquarters a management perk?",Birchman News.   

    2012

    Case studies

  • Correa, D & Griffiths, P 2012, "A Forward Looking Self - Service Product Configurator in a Big Box Retailer", Birchman News Quarter One, pp.10-2

    2012

    Case studies

  • Griffiths, P & Benoit, J 2009, "Waste - to - energy: A Case of CSR Leading to Innovation", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, Third Quarter.

    2009

    Case studies

  • Griffiths, P & Benoit, J 2009, "Waste - to - energy: A Case of CSR Leading to Innovation", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, Third Quarter.

    2009

    Case studies

  • Griffiths, P & Pflug, K 2015, "China’s Chemical Industry: The Case for Knowledge Management", CCR China Chemical Reporter, vol. 26, no.6, pp.8-9.
     

    2015

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P & Pflug, K 2015, "China’s Chemical Industry: The Case for Knowledge Management", CCR China Chemical Reporter, vol. 26, no.6, pp.8-9.
     

    2015

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2013, "Medio Ambiente, un tema adolescente en Chile", Diario Financiero, 16 ctobre, pp.17

    2013

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2013, "Medio Ambiente, un tema adolescente en Chile", Diario Financiero, October 16, pp.17.

    2013

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P & Scollon, J 2009, "Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) to Help Drive Tangible Business Benefits", Top-Consultant.com 

    2013

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P & Scollon, J 2009, "Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) to Help Drive Tangible Business Benefits", Top-Consultant.com 

    2013

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2012, "Leadership: A needs - and ethics - based model Camara Argentino-Britanica", CCAB Newsletter,  no. 149, November, “Sustainability” 

    2012

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2012, "Leadership: A needs - and ethics - based model Camara Argentino-Britanica", CCAB Newsletter,  no. 149, November, “Sustainability” 

    2012

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2012, "Leadership: Ethics as a Defining Character Trait of the Leader", Birchman News , Quarter One 2012, pp.4-5.

    2012

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2012, "Leadership: Ethics as a Defining Character Trait of the Leader", Birchman News , Quarter One 2012, pp.4-5.

    2012

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2010, "Aftermath of an Earthquake: When the Earth Cracks, we get a Chance to Become Sustainable", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, Third Quarter. 

    2010

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2010, "Aftermath of an Earthquake: When the Earth Cracks, we get a Chance to Become Sustainable", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, Third Quarter. 

    2010

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2009, "Using corporate social responsibility to build business", CIO UK Magazine, In Depth section, November 10.

    2009

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2009, "Using corporate social responsibility to build business", CIO UK Magazine, In Depth section, November 10.

    2009

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2008, "The New Role of ERP Systems: Easing the Transit to Legitimacy Through CSR",  Diario Financiero, 17 avril .  
     

    2008

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2008, "The New Role of ERP Systems: Easing the Transit to Legitimacy Through CSR",  Diario Financiero, April 17.  
     

    2008

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2006, "The Changing Role of the CIO: From Technology to Knowledge Management", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, April, pp.11-12. 

    2006

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2006, "The Changing Role of the CIO: From Technology to Knowledge Management", The Birchman Quarterly Bulletin, April, pp.11-12. 

    2006

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2005, "When you lose, don’t lose the lesson. Reflection on the sale of Skype and how the advent of VoIP has destroyed shareholder value in traditional telecommunications companies". “Busqueda” Weekly Newspaper, Sep 2005, Montevideo, Uruguay.

    2005

    Articles in professional journals

  • Griffiths, P 2005, "When you lose, don’t lose the lesson. Reflection on the sale of Skype and how the advent of VoIP has destroyed shareholder value in traditional telecommunications companies". “Busqueda” Weekly Newspaper, Sep 2005, Montevideo, Uruguay.

    2005

    Articles in professional journals